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Discussion Starter · #1 ·
What is shock and what are the signs and symptoms of it? what does it cause and how should it be treated. :confused:
 

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Google.

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000039.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shock_(circulatory)

That should get you started though.

Basically though it somewhat depends on what caused it. Massive blood loss, extreme burns, etc etc... I personally have gone into shock once for the latter reason. I honestly felt "fine" give or take (considering) but vital signs were less than ideal. As a result I got the cool "RSI" treatment.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rapid_sequence_induction

When I say cool... I couldn't be more sarcastic. Not necessarily related to shock, going back to what caused it, its very possible other measures would be required. If you have NO medical background your best bet is to call 911, if you can't call 911 for whatever reason... Well... Start reading is about all I can suggest.
 

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Discussion Starter · #3 ·
i like to know advanced first aid just incase. i have made many friends by knowing what to do when they get hurt. but thanks and i hope your okay burns are not fun!
 

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i like to know advanced first aid just incase. i have made many friends by knowing what to do when they get hurt. but thanks and i hope your okay burns are not fun!
I suggest you sign up for some classes, maybe some EMT/ Red Cross classes or some wilderness first aid classes.
 

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the most important thing about shock is to understand what it is at it's most basic level and then work out what is causing it, then treating that cause.

There are 4 broad types - Hypovolemic, obstructive, distributive and cardiogenic.

Think about what could be a cause, identify it, work out what you can do to treat it and do so.

As with all things the MOST important factors are ABC.

Airway, Breathing and Circulation. There is no point in pumping someone full of drugs etc if they don't have a patent airway!!
 

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As far as I know there are two types of shock.

Most people will say shock when they have had an emotional trauma, most say a nice hot cup of tea with a little sugar (obviously diabetics dont have the sugar).

The other is a medical shock where the blood in the limbs goes back into the chest and head to protect the major organs. Having felt that its quite a weird sensation and you'd know it if youv had it.

The first would be sit down and rest, and the second is ER ASAP!

NB Im not a medical practioner etc.
 

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Slush Butter Knife
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I broke my wrist playing hockey in 95'.

My buddy drove me to the ER and I was fine until I got into the bed. I couldn't move anything except the fingers on the broken hand!!
 

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Observer
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Shock is a condition where the body is low on oxygenated blood so starts directing the blood flow to the vital organs (the organs in the chest).

Signs include: The casualty going pale, being unconscious, suffering a collapse
Symptoms include: Feelings of dizziness, weakness, light headed

It can be caused by high stress, major bleeds, asphyxia and many other injuries and conditions.

To treat shock, if the casualty is stull conscious, try to reassure and calm them down.
Most likely they will be unconcious, in this case, if possible (i.e. legs are not damaged) raise the legs and perform ABC (Airway, Breathing, CPR if neccesary).

SUMMON MEDICAL HELP (911/999/112) ASAP IF YOU EVEN SUSPECT SHOCK

Sources:
Advanced First Aider
 

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There a several types some of them are below-

Most common forms-

Hypovolemic- caused by rapid loss of blood pressure/volume.
Cardiogenic- caused by the inability of the heart to pump blood effectively
Anaphylactic- severe allergic reaction

Some signs and symptoms- restlessness, altered mental status, respiratory distress, cool clammy skin, pale color, unconsciousness.

What does it cause if unrecognized/untreated- death.

Treatment depends on the cause.
 

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Some signs and symptoms- restlessness, altered mental status, respiratory distress, cool clammy skin, pale color, unconsciousness.

A lot of people mention that but it is misleading.... Some forms of shock actually produce hot reddish skin, septic shock for example. And in both types the blood pressure is low.

I like to group shock into 3 categories defined by where the problem is, because each has different signs and symptoms and ways of dealing with it.

There can be problems with:

1) The Pump (heart)
2) The Pipes (arteries)
3) The Fluid (blood)

1) Problems with "the pump," are cardiogenic shock. It essentially is due to some sort of damage or disturbance to the heart that makes it function badly: a heart attack, an arrhythmia, a damaged or blocked structure like a valve or major vessel like the aorta or pulmonary ateries. Drugs and infections can be the underlying cause.

This is one type of shock where the person is "cool and clammy." They will have white or even gray skin. They aren't pumping enough blood, so blood vessels constrict to send it to the most important organs instead of the skin.

The heart rate might be very high, very low, or nonexistent. The blood pressure is very important to check here, in both arms. Check for difficulty breathing, fluid in the lungs, neck veins bulging, or swelling in their hands/feet.

2) Problems with "the pipes" are distributive shock. Here, major arteries and veins suddenly dysfunction: they dilate and leak, and blood pressure drops, ie they "distribute" the blood too greatly, and the places that need it most- the brain, kidneys, liver- don't get enough.

Drugs, infections (septic shock) and allergic reactions (anaphylactic shock) can cause the vessels to act this way. Sometimes so can a spinal cord injury (neurogenic shock) or severe burns.

This is the type of shock where the skin might be hot and red. Check for fever, high heart rate (100+), insect bites, infected wounds, any sign of infection whatsoever, hives, rash, or anything toxic nearby.

3) Problems with the fluid, ie the blood, is hypovolemic shock. Anything that lowers blood volume can be a cause: bleeding- either both internal and external (hemorrhagic shock), or fluid loss (dehydration, vomiting, diarrhea, heat stroke).

The obvious treatment is getting their fluid volume back

A trick for checking for dehydration is skin turgor: pinch the skin on the back of the hand and let it go, the faster it snaps back the less dehydrated. Very dehydrated peoples' skin slowly sinks back to normal. It works surprisingly well. Try it on yourself after not drinking fluids for 24 hrs.



Most important things to look for in all cases:
- Blood pressure: almost always low (under 100/60)
- Personality changes: from agitation or confusion to barely conscious
- Cool, clammy, pale skin -OR- warm pinkish skin
- Fever
- Heart rate- very high (over 100) or low (under 60)
- Combinations like low blood pressure, fever, high heart rate.

Treatments can be different for each... for example, you need to give fluids to someone in septic shock, but do NOT want fluids given to someone with shortness of breath and heart failure. You're best off just recognizing when shock is imminent so you can get the person to a hospital quickly.
 

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A lot of people mention that but it is misleading.... Some forms of shock actually produce hot reddish skin, septic shock for example. And in both types the blood pressure is low.

I like to group shock into 3 categories defined by where the problem is, because each has different signs and symptoms and ways of dealing with it.

There can be problems with:

1) The Pump (heart)
2) The Pipes (arteries)
3) The Fluid (blood)

1) Problems with "the pump," are cardiogenic shock. It essentially is due to some sort of damage or disturbance to the heart that makes it function badly: a heart attack, an arrhythmia, a damaged or blocked structure like a valve or major vessel like the aorta or pulmonary ateries. Drugs and infections can be the underlying cause.

This is one type of shock where the person is "cool and clammy." They will have white or even gray skin. They aren't pumping enough blood, so blood vessels constrict to send it to the most important organs instead of the skin.

The heart rate might be very high, very low, or nonexistent. The blood pressure is very important to check here, in both arms. Check for difficulty breathing, fluid in the lungs, neck veins bulging, or swelling in their hands/feet.

2) Problems with "the pipes" are distributive shock. Here, major arteries and veins suddenly dysfunction: they dilate and leak, and blood pressure drops, ie they "distribute" the blood too greatly, and the places that need it most- the brain, kidneys, liver- don't get enough.

Drugs, infections (septic shock) and allergic reactions (anaphylactic shock) can cause the vessels to act this way. Sometimes so can a spinal cord injury (neurogenic shock) or severe burns.

This is the type of shock where the skin might be hot and red. Check for fever, high heart rate (100+), insect bites, infected wounds, any sign of infection whatsoever, hives, rash, or anything toxic nearby.

3) Problems with the fluid, ie the blood, is hypovolemic shock. Anything that lowers blood volume can be a cause: bleeding- either both internal and external (hemorrhagic shock), or fluid loss (dehydration, vomiting, diarrhea, heat stroke).

The obvious treatment is getting their fluid volume back

A trick for checking for dehydration is skin turgor: pinch the skin on the back of the hand and let it go, the faster it snaps back the less dehydrated. Very dehydrated peoples' skin slowly sinks back to normal. It works surprisingly well. Try it on yourself after not drinking fluids for 24 hrs.



Most important things to look for in all cases:
- Blood pressure: almost always low (under 100/60)
- Personality changes: from agitation or confusion to barely conscious
- Cool, clammy, pale skin -OR- warm pinkish skin
- Fever
- Heart rate- very high (over 100) or low (under 60)
- Combinations like low blood pressure, fever, high heart rate.

Treatments can be different for each... for example, you need to give fluids to someone in septic shock, but do NOT want fluids given to someone with shortness of breath and heart failure. You're best off just recognizing when shock is imminent so you can get the person to a hospital quickly.
You forgot obstructive shock...

But nice post :)

Don't forget people can be either hot or cold depending on their shock type.
 
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