It's possible to extend the life of peppers (and some tomatoes too) by moving them to a warm and well lit location for the winter.
The plant will continue to produce, but the harvest numbers and quality will start to taper off.
The first season of growth takes a lot of energy unfolding, and then providing a harvest.
By the end of season, the plant is fully mature and tired.
Bringing it in for the winter will help it get some energy back, but placing it back out the following year will not be enough...your harvest numbers will show that.
It's best to start from seed (indoors way before last frost date)
Transplant right after threat of last frost date
Compost plant (if not diseased) at end of season, then repeat the process.
The difference between a new plant unfolding vs a plant from last year replanted is very distinct....and so will the harvest numbers/quality.
My dad grows ghost peppers in Florida. He grows them year round BUT after each harvest he trims them down and tents them to keep cool for several weeks to rest. Then moves the tents to the other garden. So they alternate which is actively producing. He keeps his 5 years then retires them to the compost. He said it takes 2 years to get great production on them.
I'm trying different methods here with the peppers and seeds he sends me to keep them growing through winter but haven't been successful. The closest I came was a couple I refrigerated in brown bags. They lasted from October to January in the fridge. When I looked in February they were showing signs of deterioration so I took them out and they died while I was trying to nurse them back in pots.
This winter I'm going to try packing them in a sterile medium instead of the soil I used. The soil had mulch mixed in and seemed like it molded.