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Dirty Mind
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How is it that sour cream, most cheese, heavy cream, etc do not have any carbs or very little carbs yet milk has a lot of carbs???
 

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Crazy Cat Lady
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It's in the whey which is drained off. When they do that they also get most of the lactose for those of us with issues. (y)
 

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Super Moderator and Walking Methane Refinery
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From what I've seen, a serving of cheese is 1 to 1.5 ounce. When you consider that a gallon of milk makes about a pound of cheese, depending on what type being made, a cup of milk and an ounce of cheese contain about the same amount of milk.
 

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It's in the whey which is drained off. When they do that they also get most of the lactose for those of us with issues. (y)
Whey is actually low in lactose. Much of it coagulates with the fat and protein when making cheese by adding either acid, rennet, or vegetable coagulant to warm milk. Fresh young and soft cheeses such as farmer's, cottage, mozzarella, and brie still contain a fair amount of lactose (milk sugar), but it is broken down by bacteria and other microbes during the aging of hard cheeses like cheddar and Parmesan.

The same thing happens when making cultured milks such as yogurt and kefir, in which most of the lactose is changed to lactic acid during fermentation. In the case of cream, the heavier the cream, the higher the percentage of fat and therefore the lower the nonfat milk and lactose content. If cultured into sour cream, the remaining lactose in the milk portion is again changed into lactic acid during fermentation. Butter is 80% to 85% fat with most of the remainder of its weight being water and only 1% to 2% milk solids left depending on how well it is washed. Those milk solids and the water are removed when making clarified butter and ghee, so those have zero lactose.

Europeans prefer butter made from cream allowed to culture a little while being kept cool before being churned. Their butter will have a very slight buttermilk tang and almost zero lactose content. (Ever seen "sweet butter" on the label of American butter? That doesn't mean sugar added, it means the butter was churned from fresh cream rather than cream allowed to sit a while and culture. That's why all our "buttermilk" isn't real buttermilk, the liquid left after churning cultured butter, but something made from nonfat milk and added "buttermilk" culture. Genuine buttermilk is not thick like our commercial buttermilk. Old-fashioned butter made on a farm was cultured because the farm wife kept the milk cool until the cream rose to the top naturally and could be skimmed off it and then set it somewhere cool until she accumulated enough to be worth churning. Then someone invented huge dairy herds and cream separators that removed the cream instantaneously and made butter from the fresh uncultured cream. American sweet butter and thick buttermilk and the preference for them now is the result of modern factory farming.)

In other words, the more one separates milk fat from its other components, the less milk sugar there is in the product, and any time microbes are allowed to reproduce in milk, they eat the sugar (many microbes have as big a sweet tooth as any child), leaving behind their microbic poo (lactic acid, acetic acid, alcohol, or whatever else they poop). Whether the result is considered spoiled garbage or gourmet eats just depends on the microbe varieties and flavor of their excrement. If milk is pasteurized, its natural bacterial content is killed, and it will then just spoil when surviving thermophilic organisms grow and multiply/other beasties such as yeast, molds, and wild bacteria with yuck-flavored poo get into it from the air/its fat slowly goes rancid, not sour into buttermilk or other good things to eat unless an appropriate bacterial culture is reintroduced artificially.

Spoiled pasteurized milk is not the sour milk called for in old recipes; don't try to make your pancakes with the clotted gunk in an old bottle of supermarket milk. The stuff may or may not be toxic, but it will definitely not be tasty. The bacteria in milk as it comes out of the udder are both well-adapted to living on milk and already in there. If left alone, they will generally out-compete anything else that might wander in from the environment, preventing most of the undesirable spoilage organisms from getting a foothold. That's the secret behind the development of most of our dairy foods. If the beasties in the fresh milk didn't kill the calf or kid, then they're probably safe to be left to multiply in something then eaten by another mammal. Not an infallible rule, but it worked well enough to give us humans a lot of great cheeses and other naturally cultured milk products.

For some of the cheese, there was a bit of serendipity involved in having just the right organism land by accident or picking just the right cave with just the right microbe when aging the stuff. Over a few thousand years after humans started dairying, there was undoubtedly a fair amount of rotten milk tossed to the pigs, but there were also Eureka moments when just the right blue mold lived in that cave, and your moldy cheese turned out to be Roquefort, not toxic sludge. Your chance that supermarket jug of spoiled pasteurized milk has the makings of a great new cheese instead of just disgusting rotted milk is zero, though.
 

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I have control issues
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THIS!! Which is why I do NOT pasteurize my milk. I use the raw goat milk to make cheeses, then the 1st "batch" of remaining whey gets made into ricotta. The whey left over AFTER that gets fed to pigs/chickens.
 

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Which is why I do NOT pasteurize my milk. I use the raw goat milk to make cheeses,
For those without their own dairy herd, although you can make cheese from old-fashioned slow-pasteurized milk with the right culture, modern high-temp short-time or ultrapasteurized milk simply will not work because its proteins have been altered by the very high heat processing, and it will not make proper curds. You can make cheese from powdered milk although you will have to add butterfat to the nonfat powder to make anything other than skim-milk cheeses. However, making truly great cheese requires that you start with raw milk.
 
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