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Old 11-28-2012, 06:20 PM
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Default Raising a Chicken Flock for SHTF



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In this article we are going to be discussing how to design your chicken flock for a long term SHTF / TEOTWAWKI situation.



How many chickens would you need to produce enough eggs for you and your family? What about breeding, chicken coop and chicken yard size? Do you want focus on egg production, meat production, or somewhere between the two?

Egg Production

Why would eggs be important during a long term SHTF situation? Its because of their fat, amino acids and protein content.

A couple of weeks ago two of my grandsons spent the night at my house. For breakfast the 6 year old ate 4 eggs, the 3 year old ate 2 eggs. That is 6 eggs a day just for those two grandchildren, what about the rest of the family?

Why my current flock of 13 hens, my wife and I get anywhere from 5 - 10 eggs a day. The 10 eggs were during September and October before the cold fronts started pushing through. After a cold front pushes through, egg production drops down to about 5 - 6 eggs a day.

While the cold weather is here, I need to keep an eye on the chickens to see which ones are laying and which ones are not laying. Some chicken breeds do better then others in cold weather.

How many people do you anticipate being in your group? I would say plan on having 1.5 - 2 chickens per person for steady egg production. Part of the egg production is going to depend on the breed of chicken, the weather, quality of the food sources, and other factors.

What chicken breeds are good for egg production? I am focusing on Australorp, Rhode Island Red and Barred Rock. Egg production is also discussed in the article that was mentioned earlier - Best Chicken Breeds for SHTF, that is why I suggested you read the article.

Australorp - upwards towards 250 eggs a year, cold hardy, heat hardy.

Barred Rock - 150 - 200 eggs a year, cold hardy.

Dominique - one of the oldest chicken breeds in America, lays around 250 eggs a year.

Leghorn - as for food:egg laying ratio, the leghorn is one of the most efficient chickens on the market, laying around 280 eggs a year.

Rhode Island Red - around 200 eggs a year


Egg production should be planned carefully. If you do not have enough hens to meet your needed egg production, its going to be an easy 5 months (around 20 weeks) before hens start laying. Some breeds can start laying as early as 16 weeks, and as late as 24 weeks. So you are talking anywhere from 4 - 6 months before pullets start laying. Then its going to take another few weeks for laying to stabilize.

When pullets start laying, the eggs may have thin shells, the eggs are very small, and the pullets may not lay on a regular basis. Its going to take a little while for the eggs to get larger, shells to get thicker, and the laying schedule to regulate out.

The first eggs that are laid my be spread across the chicken yard or inside the coop, instead of being in the laying boxes.

Do not think you are going to start with a small flock, bam SHTF, then you are going to raise chicks to egg laying age overnight, while the next morning you have a hungry family sitting at the table.

If you plan on having 20 people use your Homestead as a Bug Out Location, what would be your ideal flock size?

If I knew 20 friends and family members were going to show up at my house after SHTF, then I would want 25 - 30 good quality laying hens in my flock.
Breeding

How are you going to maintain a steady influx of eggs and meat if a SHTF situation last several years? Have a rooster and allow your chickens to breed.

The breeding terms we are going to be using are called Line Breeding, Rotational Breeding and Spiral Breeding.

Inbreeding - allowing closely related chickens to breed.

Linebreeding - crosses between related individuals and their descendants or two cousins.

Rotational Breeding - establish two or more breeding flocks. Chickens produced from flock A are bred with flock B.

Spiral Breeding - establish three breeding flocks, with three separate pens. Rotate out breeding between the males and females between the three pens, with as little inbreeding as possible.

Regardless of what breeding system is used, it is important to cull out birds exhibiting bad behavior, as well as sickly and lame birds.

With inbreeding / linebreeding negative and positive traits can be passed down from the parents to the chicks. Cull out the chickens with negative traits before they can reproduce.

For long term breeding I thought about using some kind of rotational system with 2 pens, and exchanging roosters with my cousin from time to time.

Meat Production

Commercially produced meat chickens are a hybrid cross between a commercial cornish chicken with a White Rock chicken. These chickens are bred specially for butchering before the chicken reaches a certain age. Sometimes these are called broilers, market broiler, or a cornish hen.

The development of a commercial broiler type chicken began with the chicken of tomorrow project. People have been looking to breed better quality chickens for thousands of years. But the commercial breeders have taken it to a whole new level.

A broiler is usually ready to butcher at around 6 weeks old, with pullets weighing 4.5 pounds and cockerels weighing 6 pounds.

Its the crossbreeding and a high protein diet that makes the broiler grow so fast. These broiler chickens are fed a special diet of commercially produced feed, feed that will not be available after SHTF.

If a Cornish broiler chicken is not butchered, it will start to develop health problems, such as heart and leg problems. Some chickens grow faster then their legs, which can result in a lame chicken.

Because broiler chickens require a high protein diet, must be butchered at a certain age, and will develop health problems if not butchered, I suggest staying away from broiler type chickens for a long term SHTF chicken flock.

Chickens serve three main purposes in our SHTF chicken flock - eggs, reproduction and meat. Since broiler types of chickens are not going to live long enough to either lay eggs or reproduce, lets just not even consider them for part of our flock.

The three breeds mentioned in the egg section - Barred Rock, Rhode Island Red and Australorp are all good meat chickens.

The Barred Rock is a shorter stockier bird then the other two. The last time I butchered my chickens, I had nothing but Barred Rocks. They butchered out well and had plenty of meat on them.

On average, and depending on the quality of the feed, and type of chicken, expect to butcher at around 18 - 20 weeks of age. 18 - 20 weeks is also around the same time most hens should start laying. Some breeds can take as long as 24 weeks to start laying. So if they are not laying at 20 weeks, do not get worried.

After around 20 weeks the growth rate of a chicken starts to slow down a little bit. If you want to butcher the chickens, consider the feed:meat ratio. Past 20 weeks of age, you are getting a reduced return on your investment.

Breeding meat chickens - instead of trying to raise 2 or three different types of chickens, consider raising breeds that when bred produce a good broiler chicken. Barred Rock roosters bred to New Hampshire hens produces a broiler type chicken that was popular in the early 20th century.

Eating a chicken after SHTF - awhile back there was a thread in the forum asking how many chickens someone would need to eat two chickens a week.

My personal opinion on the issue, to be able to free-range enough chickens to eat 2 a week, is going to take a lot of land, time and effort.

One of the first numbers used in this article was around 25 - 30 laying hens. If someone wanted to include chicken meat into their regular meals, I would look at raising that number to around 50 - 75 chickens.

To be able to butcher chickens on a regular basis, one would probably need a dedicated breeding flock. Instead of laying hens, something that produces a broiler type chicken like mentioned above.

Chicken Yard / Chicken Coop

Think you and your family are the only ones that like to eat eggs and chicken meat? Think again. Depending on your location you are going to be looking at coyotes, opossums, raccoons, stray dogs,,, only to mention a few.

Lets start with a secure coop that is wind, rain, snow and predator proof. Something that will provide the chickens a place to lay eggs and a place to roost at night.



How much room do chickens need in the coop? Around three square feet to move around. When it comes time to roost, they will bunch up together.

To stop hens from establishing a pecking order in the roost, I built my roost flat instead of at an angle. That way all of the chickens are at the same height, reduces stress, and decreases pecking.

How much room do chickens need in the run or chicken yard? At least 10 square feet per chicken. Ideally chickens should be able to free range where they have access to as much land as they want, but in a lot of situations this is not possible.

The chicken yard I am designing, and hope to build, will give each of my 13 hens around 96 square feet. Outside of the chicken yard they will have access to several acres of open field and wooded property. The wooded property is a mixture of pine trees, oak trees and brush.


96 square feet per chicken leaves a lot of room for growth.

Even if I increased the flock size to 30 chickens, that equals 42 square feet per chicken inside the chicken yard.

Foraging

The larger the chicken breed, they more they have to eat. The more chickens eat, the more land they need.

Broiler types of chickens do not forage very well, as their body grows faster then their legs. They like to sit next to the feed bucket and let their food be delivered to them.

For the sake of this article we are talking about maintaining a chicken flock in a post-SHTF situation. And as such, we much assume their will be no commercial feed available.

Chickens will be fed table scraps, scraps from the garden, and from there they will have to forage. This is where the light - medium weight heritage chicken breeds come into play. There is a reason why grandma raised certain types of chickens on her farm.

Why have breeds such as the Red Island Reds, New Hampshires, Black Australorp, White Rocks, Barred Rocks, Leghorn, Dominique,,, remained popular for so long? Because they are good quality chickens.

During the great depression of the 1930s, if a chicken could not forage, it probably starved to death. Why are the old heritage breeds still around and so popular? Because they have served rural farmers for generations.

Conclusion

Ok, we have talked about eggs, breeding, meat production, chicken coop and the chicken yard.

So far there have only been three chicken breeds mentioned - Australorp, Barred Rock and the Rhode Island Red. Just because I mentioned those three breeds does not mean they are the "best" breeds.

There are a lot of good dual-purpose chicken breeds out there - Orpington, Sussex, Leghorns, Delawares, New Hampshire,,, only to name a few. Some chickens do well in hot weather, some do well in cold weather. Some lay more eggs then others, some make a better meat chicken then others.

I think its a matter of picking the qualities that you want in your flock, and then picking a well rounded breed to serve the purpose you need.

For my SHTF / TEOTWAWKI chicken flock, egg production is first, with meat / butchering qualities being second.

Since I live in southeast Texas, I need a chicken that can tolerate the 100 degree summer daytime temps.

Did we miss anything?

Last edited by kev; 11-28-2012 at 07:40 PM..
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Old 11-28-2012, 06:30 PM
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Nice article and look forward to the discussion. Foraging is key to a self sufficient flock. Like you indicate some breeds are better than others. I currently raise banthams. These by nature are very good foragers. Their eggs are about half size large chicken eggs, but just as good. My experiments with full size chickens have been somewhat disappointing when it comes to foraging. Mine have always had a tendency to just wait by the feeder to be fed or follow you around waiting for you to feed them. The disadvantage to the banthams is their meat. They don't put the meat on like full size chickens. I just fix them like game hens and enjoy them greatly. They are also great mothers and will set and raise chicks with great gusto. My SHTF flock focuses strictly on banthams. Thanks again for the information.
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Old 11-28-2012, 07:30 PM
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Excellent info, Kev. I've been hoping for an article that simplifies it like you did.
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Old 11-28-2012, 07:31 PM
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Curious:
If egg laying is your #1 priority, Listing fat, amino acids and protein contents as important, why would you choose chickens over ducks? Duck eggs are higher in all of those values, according to everything I've read : example http://www.duckeggs.com/duck-egg-nutrition-compare.html

I understand that some people are allergic to duck eggs and not chicken, but IMO, they taste MUCH better than chicken eggs. and my runners had 3 eggs waiting for me every day this summer once they started laying, I cannot say I had the same results from my orpington hens.
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Old 11-28-2012, 07:37 PM
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Alot of great useful info on here but didnt see (most likely just missed) the diet requirements. When I was a kid, we use to throw in some oyster shell calcium with the scratch if the shells were getting too thin. My main question is, do you feed them commercial style feed at first then when SHTF (and commercial feed is no longer available) just feed them whatever or go ahead and start them out on whatever so that their systems wont have to regulate to a new diet?
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Old 11-28-2012, 09:33 PM
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Originally Posted by iamwho1am View Post
Alot of great useful info on here but didnt see (most likely just missed) the diet requirements. When I was a kid, we use to throw in some oyster shell calcium with the scratch if the shells were getting too thin.
Oyster shell is something you could stockpile, as it won't go bad. Alternatively, you could stockpile pickling lime (calcium hydroxide), and it could serve multiple purposes. If you find yourself without a stash of either of these, you can feed them a bit of bonemeal, which is just pulverized bones (bones are mostly calcium).
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Old 11-28-2012, 10:25 PM
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Originally Posted by irregardless View Post
Curious:
If egg laying is your #1 priority, Listing fat, amino acids and protein contents as important, why would you choose chickens over ducks? Duck eggs are higher in all of those values, according to everything I've read
That is a good question.

Maybe its how well chickens forage? Maybe its because chickens roost in a coop?

Back in the late 1990s I had some white pekin ducks. They laid a large eggs and seemed to do well in the confinement of a pen. I even dug a small water hole in the pen for them.

The female duck had ducklings, but I think a mink got to them. I remember the duck walking around the yard with the little ducklings following her.
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Old 11-28-2012, 10:34 PM
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Well, for one, Ducks can be twice as messy as chickens.

Quote:
Originally Posted by irregardless View Post
Curious:
If egg laying is your #1 priority, Listing fat, amino acids and protein contents as important, why would you choose chickens over ducks? Duck eggs are higher in all of those values, according to everything I've read : example http://www.duckeggs.com/duck-egg-nutrition-compare.html
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Old 11-29-2012, 08:40 AM
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Quote:
Originally Posted by irregardless View Post
Curious:
If egg laying is your #1 priority, Listing fat, amino acids and protein contents as important, why would you choose chickens over ducks? Duck eggs are higher in all of those values, according to everything I've read : example http://www.duckeggs.com/duck-egg-nutrition-compare.html
I have 3 female ducks.

The Muscovy I've had for about a year and a half. She didn't start laying until she was 1 yr old. For a while in the spring/early summer she'd lay an egg just about every day. Then about every other day. Now (almost December) I haven't seen an egg in a good month or two.

The two Rouens I got this year. They started laying much earlier than the Muscovy - they started in the early summer. They were very good layers over the summer, most days I got one egg each. They stopped laying more than a month ago (I have found one or two since, but I wasn't entirely convinced that they were older eggs, and they weren't used).

Anyway, I'm nowhere near an expert on ducks, but that's my experience with them. My chickens are still laying.

I have 3 Rhode Island Reds and 4 Leghorns. They are about 1 3/4 years old. I get 3-5 eggs a day from them now. In the other pen I have about 15ish hens (they don't stay still long enough to count for sure). These ones have been laying since late August and the eggs are getting better and more regular. Right now I get anywhere from 5-12 eggs a day from them. I can't tell you what kinds because I got these from a local breeder who didn't mind me picking one of this, two of this kind, etc. So there's a variety.

I also have 4 guinea hens. Their eggs are slightly smaller than a chicken egg. They started laying over the summer, and they laid just about an egg every other day. They don't lay much anymore - I probably get 1-2 eggs a week.


Also, let me add:

I love my two Muscovy ducks. They are pretty big, about the size of the rooster. They are quite and only make a bit of a cooing sound. The Rouen male doesn't make much noise, just some quiet quacks sometimes. The two females, though, are very noisy when they want something. VERY LOUD and annoying. I couldn't imagine having a bunch of them! It would drive me mad! (And I have 5-6 roosters, and that doesn't bother me). The guineas can also be somewhat annoying too. They are also by far the most dumbest creature I have ever come across!
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Old 11-29-2012, 09:14 AM
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Dragonid View Post
Oyster shell is something you could stockpile, as it won't go bad. Alternatively, you could stockpile pickling lime (calcium hydroxide), and it could serve multiple purposes. If you find yourself without a stash of either of these, you can feed them a bit of bonemeal, which is just pulverized bones (bones are mostly calcium).
My grandmother used to throw the shells into a bucket. When it was full she'd run them through the food processor until they were almost a fine sand, then add that to the chicken yard as well as have a pan of it where the hens could get it. Provides grit and calcium for 'em. That's what I give them now and the shells are pretty stout.

I like ducks, like to eat them and like to watch them. I do not, however, enjoy walking in any area they spend time in. I found it impossible to keep their water clean, for starters, and with the exception of the Muscoveys they are obnoxiously loud. Muscovey especially is delicious, not nearly as fatty as the Pekins, but the way I'm set up I just don't want to deal with them.

Right now I'm getting about an 80% production from a mix of Marans, Sussex, Wyandottes, and Ameracaunas, with the odd Australorp, Lakenvelder, and mutt thrown in. There's also two Cochin hens that are terrible layers but I have them for broodies so that's ok. If I were doing it purely from a survival standpoint I would have gotten some small game hens for broodies since they forage and lay better but I like my big fluffballs.
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Old 11-29-2012, 11:23 AM
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Quote:
Originally Posted by irregardless View Post
Curious:
If egg laying is your #1 priority, Listing fat, amino acids and protein contents as important, why would you choose chickens over ducks? Duck eggs are higher in all of those values, according to everything I've read : example http://www.duckeggs.com/duck-egg-nutrition-compare.html

I understand that some people are allergic to duck eggs and not chicken, but IMO, they taste MUCH better than chicken eggs. and my runners had 3 eggs waiting for me every day this summer once they started laying, I cannot say I had the same results from my orpington hens.
Good point you make there and something I was thinking while reading the excellent info Kev put out there. But something like Khaki Campbells can crank out a surprising number of eggs and is one of the better duck breeds for this but they also arent nearly as broody either when it comes to sitting on those eggs.The eggs are much richer as you mentioned and considerably bigger than a chicken egg. They forage very well too just like chickens do.

Might make a good argument for having both on your homestead!
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Old 11-29-2012, 01:16 PM
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i have a small flock for egg production. how long do chickens live and at what age do they stop laying eggs ? thank you.
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Old 01-07-2013, 12:41 AM
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I've been keeping chickens for a couple of years now. I started out with nine chicks, but when they were old enough to put out in the new coop & run, a hawk helped me test a flaw in my design and I was down to 8 on the first day that they went out. I had "chicken wire" going down to the ground level originally. Now I've got hardware cloth overtop of the chicken wire, and I have it going down-and-out, away from the run, a couple of inches underground which has already stopped a fox and a dog from getting in.

With 8 birds, my family of 5 had too many eggs. Even the neighbors were saying "no mas!" so I gave 2 hens away, and we're down to 6. This seems to be a good number.

We don't light up or heat the coop in the winter. The hens do fine. They lay fewer eggs over the winter this way, but it gives them a nice break for the spring. And we still get "enough" eggs.

No roosters in my flock. I live inside of city limits and it would be considered a "nuisance" animal. The neighbors didn't even know I had chickens until I started bringing extra eggs to them, mostly because there is no rooster back there making noise. But I have plenty of friends who have surplus roosters pretty much at all times, and if I ever needed to make my flock a bit more self-replenishing in nature, I could get a rooster in a hurry without much trouble.

The modern commercial breeds seem to lack the survival instinct that is inherent in the more heritage type breeds. One of the non-descript red mixes that I got from Tractor Supply is the one who walked right up to a hawk standing outside of the fence and got pecked in the face. The heritage breeds seem to know to keep away and seek cover when the predators are around.

With the small kids, I've had the best luck with the speckled sussex. "Cujo" is a much more laid back bird, very happy to be picked up and carried around like a pet. In fact, my kids took her to Petco today while we were picking up supplies. Fair warning: there is nothing on this planet that smells like a chicken pooping in your mini-van.
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