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Old 10-26-2012, 12:35 PM
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Default Mosin Information and Markings



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I have created this document to help the individual that is new to the Mosin or someone that has been collecting them for years. I hope that you can print this document to help when you are out looking at rifles to help you understand what you are looking at and a little of the history behind the rifle.

Oddly enough the first Mosin Nagant rifles were not made in Russia. They were made in France. The Mosin 1891/30 Chatellerault rifle is one of the rarest of the Mosin line of rifles. France was the only country at the time that Russia had a treaty with and the Russian industrial system was overloaded when the rifle was developed. The Chatellerault rifle was produced under contract in France from 1892 until 1895. The Mosin rifle was also produced in Hungary, Bulgaria, Poland, Finland, China, Romania and the United States. The rifles were also re-arsenaled in the countries listed above as well as Austria, Germany, The German Democratic Republic, Cuba, Korea and Turkey.

Produced or built is subject to interpretation. Most countries built their version of the Mosin on a captured Russian receiver. While countries like Finland produced a fine line of the Mosin rifle. Below is a basic listing of production years and amounts as well as where they were produced.

M1891 Rifle:
Chatellerault/France – 1892/1895 – 503,539
Tula – 1892/1926 – 4,388,242
Izhevsk – 1892/1926 – 1,486,236
Sestroryetsk – 1892/1918 – 621,000

M1891 Dragoon Rifle:
Tula & Izhevsk – 1893/1932 – 4,331,000

M1891 Cossack Rifle:
Izhevsk – 1894/1920-21 – 1,348,000

M1891/1930 Rifle: M91/30
Tula & Izhevsk – 1927/1945 – 14,000,000

M1938 Rifle: - M38/Carbine
Tula – 1940 & 1944 – 50,000
Izhevsk – 1939/1945 – 2,450,000

M1944 Rifle: - M44/Carbine
Tula – 1944 – 100,000
Izhevsk – 1943/1948 – 7,561,831

The 1943 rifles were considered to be prototype rifles and are harder to find. There is a rumor that there were a few 1943 Tula made M44’s but I have never seen one in person.

Model 1907 Rifle: M1907/Carbine - One of the rarest Mosin’s made
Izhevsk – 1907/1917 – First Pattern – 4,400 – Second Pattern – 300,000

Model 1891/59 Rifle: 91/59 - Carbine
Little is known about this Carbine other than it was made from a cut down M1891/30 full sized rifle. It has been estimated that between 1,000,000 and 3,000,000 were made. No one knows for sure where they were produced other than Russia. They were thought to be used for either Border Patrol troops or Internal Russian Guards. Most are considered to be excellent shooters and were made with no bayonet.
__________________________________________________ ____________________
Now we come to the Finnish rifles, one of the collectors favorites. These guns were better built and had a high quality barrel compared to its Russian counterpart. The Finn’s also hated the Russian triggers and added a small spring to the trigger group to take up the additional slack in the trigger.

Model 1891 Rifle SAT – Marked SAT Riihimaki – 1922/1924 – 150 to 200
Rarest of the Finn’s called the SAT M91’s. Finland’s first attempt at making new barrels.

Model 1924 Rifle – 1924/1928 – 27,000
These rifles were made using German made barrels.

Model 1891 Early Tikka Rifle – 1925/1927 – 10,000

Model 1891 P Series Rifle – 1925/1927 – 13,450
Made using older Russian barrels.

Model 1891 Rifle Tikka – 1940/1944 – 45,000

Model 1891 Rifle VKT and Model 1891 B Barrel – 1940/1942 – 32,000

Model 1927 Rifle – Tikka 1927/1940 - VKT 1032/1935 – Tikka – 69,000/VKT - 2550

Model 1927 Carbine – Tikka 1933/1934 - VKT – 1937 – Tikka – 2000/VKT – 225

Model 1928 Rifle – SIG 1928/1932 – SAKO 1928/1932 – Total Production 35,000

Model 1928/1930 Rifle – 1933/1940 – SAKO – 40,000

Model 1939 Rifle – 1940/1945 – SAKO, VKT, B, Tikka – Total Production 108,800

NOTE: There were approximately 8000 to 9000 rifles produced post war between the 1960’s and the 1970’s. These rifles were made from the unfinished rifles and unused parts from the earlier production years.

Model 1891/1930 Rifle – Tikka – 1943/1944 – 14,000

I know that there is no way that this list is complete. This is just a synopsis of the common rifles made during these periods of time to use as a reference when looking at and trying to determine where a rifle was made or where it came from.

New England Westinghouse/Remington
The Russian Government ordered 1.8 million rifles from New England Westinghouse and 1.5 million rifles from Remington-UMC as well as 100,000,000 rounds of 7.62X54r ammunition. They were produced between 1915/1918 when production was halted due to Russian legal issues and their inability to pay for the finished product.
Remington-UMC produced 840,310 rifles and delivered 131,400 to Russia
New England Westinghouse produced 770,000 and delivered 225,260 to Russia.
The rest of the rifles were sold to the American government as well as other government entities around the world. Both companies took a major loss in the production of these rifles.

Austria and Hungarian Rifles:
Large numbers of captured rifles were issued into service with the 7.62X54r round. When supplies of the ammunition ran short the rifles were re-arsenaled and converted to the 8X50 Austrian round at the Wiener-Neustadt Amory. After Hungary became a Soviet satellite the rifles made their way back into Hungarian armories and the M44 carbine was produced after WWII.

China:
China made the Mosin Type 53 carbine based on the M44 design. Made in factory 26 for interior security forces, they were produced until 1960. A very rare version was made as a trainer in the 7.62X39 round and very few have ever been seen.

Czechoslovakia:
M91/38 carbines were made based on the standard M38 design. The Odstrelovaci Pujka VZ.54 sniper rifle was made built on a specially finished design on what was the basic 1891/30 rifle pattern. It was designed to shoot special 7.62 ball ammo made for the Goryunov Machine Gun. It had a pistol grip half stock and a free floated barrel. Large numbers of this variant were never made but it was considered to be a very accurate and dependable rifle.

Hungary:
Large quantities of the Hungarian M/44 were made by FEG in Budapest in the early 1950’s. They also produced the standard 91/30 sniper rifle as well.

Korea:
Korea produced a poor quality version of the 91/30 rifle in the 1950’s labeled as the Type 30.

Poland:
The Polish government produced Mosin’s as early as the 1920’s converted to a 7.9mm barrel. The rifle fed a rimless type cartridge and was designated as the WZ.91/98/25. They also made a poor quality version of the M/44 and the 91/30 as well. They did produce a High Quality Trainer in the .22 LR round made at the famous Radom State Arsenal.
NOTE: The Polish Post War M44's have been described as being equal in quality and accuracy to the Finnish rifles made during the war. Barrels and stocks were considered to be of top quality.

Romania:
The Romanians produced large amounts of the M/44 for their own use as well as for sale to third world countries. They also produced unknown amounts of rifles based on the 91.30 platform as well.

Mosin Rifle Markings:

This list is in no way complete. It is a basic list of markings found on rifles and may help you to identify what you are looking at:

Tula Markings:May be on Barrel Shank or Receiver or Stock:
Tula Hammer (pre 1928) on the Receiver
Tula Arrow in Star (post 1928) on the Barrel Shank
Tula Star Bolt body
Tula Hammer in Circle Bolt body
Tula Refurbishment mark Barrel Shank will be a T stamped in a Square
Tula "S N" Sniper mark Barrel Shank
Tula "S P" Sniper mark Barrel shank
Tula Hammer and date (pre 1900) marked on the rear Tang on the bottom, must take the rifle apart to see this marking
Tula Hammer and date (post 1900) marked on the rear Tang on the bottom, must take the rifle apart to see this marking
Tula Star and date (post 1928) marked on the rear Tang on the bottom, must take the rifle apart to see this marking
Tula "hammer" cartouche with date stamped on the Stock
Tula "Arrow in Star" and date stamped on the Stock
Tula Star on Cocking knob


Not Tula Specific but may be on Barrel Shank or Receiver or Stock:
Point of aim proof Barrel shank will be a K stamped in a Circle
Concentric "00" Accuracy proof Barrel shank
"MO" with extra date Ministry of Defense, which means it was set aside for internal Goverment use. Sometimes will be double dated
Soviet "CCCP" cartouche stamped on the Stock
Soviet Crest Barrel shank, which is the Hammer and Sickle stamped in a double leaf cluster
"YY" training mark M91/30 stock
Cyrillic letters - 2 in an oval believed to represent a training school M91/30 stock

Older Mosin Black Powder Markings
Provisional black powder proof Barrel shank, will look like an N stamped in a Circle
Final black powder proof Barrel shank, will look like a Y stamped in a Circle

Izhevsk Markings:May be on Barrel Shank or Receiver or Stock:
Izhevsk Bow and Arrow (pre 1928) Barrel shank
Izhevsk Arrow in Triangle (post 1928) Barrel shank
Izhevsk Bow and Arrow Bolt body
Izhevsk Bow and Arrow Cocking knob
Izhevsk Bow and Arrow Sear/Bolt stop
Izhevsk Bow and Arrow and date (pre 1928) marked on the rear Tang on the bottom, must take the rifle apart to see this marking
Izhevsk Arrow in Triangle and date (post 1928) marked on the rear Tang on the bottom, must take the rifle apart to see this marking

Not Izhevsk Specific but may be on Barrel Shank or Receiver or Stock:
Point of aim proof Barrel shank will be a K stamped in a Circle
Concentric "00" Accuracy proof Barrel shank
"MO" with extra date Ministry of Defense, which means it was set aside for internal Goverment use. Sometimes will be double dated
Soviet "CCCP" cartouche stamped on the Stock
Soviet Crest Barrel shank, which is the Hammer and Sickle stamped in a double leaf cluster
"YY" training mark M91/30 stock
Cyrillic letters - 2 in an oval believed to represent a training school M91/30 stock

Cossack Rifle Markings: Not very many examples of these
KA3.Cossack rifle mark Barrel shank

Sestroryetsk Markings:
Sestroryetsk Arrow Trigger
Sestroryetsk Arrow Cocking knob
Sestroryetsk Arrow and date (2 digit pre 1900) marked on the rear Tang on the bottom, must take the rifle apart to see this marking
Sestroryetsk Arrow and date (3 digit post 1900) marked on the rear Tang on the bottom, must take the rifle apart to see this marking

New England Westinghouse Markings:
New England Westinghouse E Bolt body
New England Westinghouse N Follower carrier spring
New England Westinghouse M with arrow or Can be other letters. On top of tang, no markings on bottom

Remington Markings:
Remington Circle R Bolt body
Remington Circle R, no date marked on the rear Tang on the bottom, must take the rifle apart to see this marking
Remington Circle R, no date marked on the rear Tang on the bottom, must take the rifle apart to see this marking

Chatellerault Markings:
Chatellerault Circle C and date marked on the rear Tang on the bottom, must take the rifle apart to see this marking
Chatellerault Circle P, no date marked on the rear Tang on the bottom, must take the rifle apart to see this marking

Finnish Rifle Markings
Boxed SA Suomen Armeija Finnish Army Property Mark
Boxed SA t - t stands for Taisteluvšlinehallinto Ordnance Department
Puolustuslaitos - Defense Department This was used for 2 months in 1942 before the adoption of [SA] on Barrel shank
Crossed Cannons and AV1 This was an early Tikka M91 Mark on receiver
Suojeluskuntain Yliesikunta for Civil Guard was an acceptance stamp on Barrel shank
=II= Inspection mark which can be I or III also Civil Guard M24, M28, and M28/30 found stamped on buttplates

Romanian Markings
Romanian arrowhead in triangle and date marked on the rear Tang on the bottom, must take the rifle apart to see this marking
Romanian arrowhead in triangle mark found on Butt plate and other parts
Romanian C in triangle mark found on Butt plate and other parts

Other Markings:
Crown over Cyrillic "NP" possibly stock acceptance mark under buttplate
"YY" training rifle mark M44 bayonet locking ring
Sling maker's mark Sling reinforcement
"00" replaced concentric "00" for a brief time in the late '20s at Izhevsk Accuracy proof Barrel shank

On the "MO" Marks on Mosin Rifles please check this link to 7.62X54r for a detailed explanation of these markings. They explain it way better than I ever could:

http://www.7.62x54r.net/MosinID/MosinMO.htm

This list will expand over time as others add to this thread.

Last edited by Hard Hittin 54r; 10-29-2012 at 01:25 PM..
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Old 10-26-2012, 04:14 PM
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Please feel free to add a post with data to expand this list.

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Old 10-26-2012, 04:16 PM
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it does not mention polish rifles that were produced after the war. the polish m44 can be described below from mosinnagant.net

As is the case with many Polish manufactured small arms, the M44 Carbines are very well manufactured rifles. The metal and the wood found on the Polish M44's are of the highest quality. The overall quality of the Polish M44 is second to none and in many regards rivals the Finnish made Mosin Nagants in overall quality. In the opinion of many shooters and collectors these carbines are possibly the standard of all the Mosin Nagants, and are without a doubt the finest M44 carbine ever manufactured.

i have a polish m44 and it amazing

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Old 10-26-2012, 04:35 PM
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Hammer5513 View Post
it does not mention polish rifles that were produced after the war. the polish m44 can be described below from mosinnagant.net

As is the case with many Polish manufactured small arms, the M44 Carbines are very well manufactured rifles. The metal and the wood found on the Polish M44's are of the highest quality. The overall quality of the Polish M44 is second to none and in many regards rivals the Finnish made Mosin Nagants in overall quality. In the opinion of many shooters and collectors these carbines are possibly the standard of all the Mosin Nagants, and are without a doubt the finest M44 carbine ever manufactured.

i have a polish m44 and it amazing

Thanks, I added a note to the Polish section...
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Old 10-26-2012, 04:42 PM
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the guy at the gunshow gave me a discount on it since he said it wasnt produced during the war years so it was not selling. i was looking for a shooter, so i didnt care. its practically new and the price i got this for was outstanding and all the whitetails in north dakota are completely scared of it
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Old 10-26-2012, 07:38 PM
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The MO mark is unknown. The Ministry of Defense theory doesn't hold up since it was not created by the time of the second dates. Also may have triple dates.
And CAO and CKO also unknown. But kind of tied to MO area.

Boxed SA mark for Finnish Army property.
Civil Guard numbers.

SCW Mosins. Flaming bomb and Made in USSR marks.

AZF mark for Austrian captures.

S*4 for Czechoslovakia.
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Old 10-26-2012, 08:25 PM
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Hard Hittin 54r View Post
Please feel free to add a post with data to expand this list.

Thanks



Romania:
The Romanians produced large amounts of the M/44 for their own use as well as for sale to third world countries. They also produced unknown amounts of rifles based on the 91.30 platform as well.

Romania-

Production from 1953-1955, with the majority being produced in 1955. Romanians are very often mistaken as Russians, because the crests of both countries are very similar, the Romanian crest is the letters "RPR" surrounded by a wreath, while the Russian crest is the Soviet "sickle and hammer" surrounded by a wreath. Likewise, the proofs are similar to Izhevsk's "Arrow in a triangle," and the Romanian proof is an "arrowhead in a triangle."

Romania also built an unknown number of 91/30 type rifles, the main differences in the Russian/Romanian 91/30's are a recess in the forestock similar to the M44 carbines, a sling-swivel directly under the sights and a front sight more similar to a Mauser, even up to accepting Mauser front sight guards.
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Old 10-27-2012, 07:35 PM
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Quote:
Originally Posted by BuckeyeSgt View Post
The MO mark is unknown. The Ministry of Defense theory doesn't hold up since it was not created by the time of the second dates. Also may have triple dates.
And CAO and CKO also unknown. But kind of tied to MO area.

Boxed SA mark for Finnish Army property.
Civil Guard numbers.

SCW Mosins. Flaming bomb and Made in USSR marks.

AZF mark for Austrian captures.

S*4 for Czechoslovakia.
Looking into it now brother. Thanks for the info. As soon as I validate the information I will make an addition to the post...
Old 10-27-2012, 07:37 PM
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Sweeper80 View Post
Romania-

Production from 1953-1955, with the majority being produced in 1955. Romanians are very often mistaken as Russians, because the crests of both countries are very similar, the Romanian crest is the letters "RPR" surrounded by a wreath, while the Russian crest is the Soviet "sickle and hammer" surrounded by a wreath. Likewise, the proofs are similar to Izhevsk's "Arrow in a triangle," and the Romanian proof is an "arrowhead in a triangle."

Romania also built an unknown number of 91/30 type rifles, the main differences in the Russian/Romanian 91/30's are a recess in the forestock similar to the M44 carbines, a sling-swivel directly under the sights and a front sight more similar to a Mauser, even up to accepting Mauser front sight guards.
From you PM's brother it looks as if you solved your own issue. Looks as if the thread has done its job thus far...
Old 10-28-2012, 04:53 AM
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Thank you for this highly useful and much needed info!
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Old 10-28-2012, 08:25 AM
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Quote:
Originally Posted by saintldee View Post
Thank you for this highly useful and much needed info!
For anything you ever wanted to know about Mosin Nagants and then some go to mosinnagant.net or 7.62x64r.net!

No offense, but this thread here couldn't ever compete with the information and knowledge on those links.
Old 10-28-2012, 12:08 PM
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Mr. America View Post
For anything you ever wanted to know about Mosin Nagants and then some go to mosinnagant.net or 7.62x64r.net!

No offense, but this thread here couldn't ever compete with the information and knowledge on those links.
None taken. This thread was never meant to do that. It is a quick guide for people here to use. We have tons of members here that can use this info...
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Old 10-28-2012, 01:02 PM
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General Markings.

1. A circle with a Cyrillic P (Π) inside is thought to be a
Black Powder Proof mark. I've also seen Π without a circle around it.

2. The number 4 on a part (Bolt Handle). Tula
Unknown.
3. A Cyrillic B (Б) alone or inside a diamond, Izhevsk.
Unknown.
4. A circle with a Cyrillic S (C) inside. Tula
Unknown.

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Old 10-29-2012, 01:26 PM
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I have updated some of the markings in the bottom section and added a link related to the infamous "MO" markings. I will continue to update as I have time...
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